Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain dysfunction marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with the functioning or development of an individual. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behavioural characteristics of ADHD. Many people face problems with both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, while some only suffer from one of these two symptoms. Among preschool children, the most common ADHD symptom is hyperactivity but most children have combination of both types of ADHD. Although it is normal to have some inattention or unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, for people with ADHD, these behaviours tend to be somewhat more severe and occur regularly. ADHD symptoms can appear as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can easily be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems. Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, however, like many other illnesses, a number of factors are known to contribute to ADHD, such as:

  • Genes
  • Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use during pregnancy
  • Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy
  • Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age
  • Low birth weight
  • Brain injuries

Currently, there is no cure available for ADHD, but various therapies have been developed to reduce symptoms and improve functioning of ADHD patients. Treatments include:

  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy
  • Education or Training

Separation Anxiety Disorder

More often than not, when a child is afraid or alarmed of being separated from one’s parents or caregivers, SAD is thought to be natural. Usually, it is a behaviour that fades over time; however, in some situational circumstances, it continues to persist and if it interferes with one’s daily life, it is termed to be Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). These are some of the signs to look for to identify SAD in Children and Adults:


  • Refusal to sleep alone
  • Repeated nightmares with a theme of separation
  • Worrying when parted from home or family, the safety of a family member or about getting lost from family
  • Refusal to go to school
  • Fearful and reluctant to be alone
  • Frequent stomach aches or other physical complaints
  • Very clingy
  • Panic or temper tantrums at times of separation from parents or caregivers


  • Unusual distress about being separated from a person or pet
  • Excessive worry that another person will be harmed if they leave them alone
  • Heightened fear of being alone
  • Physical symptoms
  • Needing to know where a spouse or loved one is at all times

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